Maximianus

Maximianus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus)

  • Pre-reform coinage
  • Western mints
  • Eastern mints
  • Post-abdication
  • Biography...
204-383
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Siscia, 287
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; Radiate cuirassed bust right
rev.- CLEMENTIA AVG; Emperor standing right, holding scepter and receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter, standing left and holding scepter; B in field, XXI in ex
RIC V.ii Sis 575 [var]
23mm; 4.4g; antoninianus
Scarce type for Maximianus, and unlisted in RIC with this obverse legend
204-290
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Siscia, 289-290
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Radiate bare "heroic" bust right
rev.- CONSERVATOR AVGG; Maximianus and Hercules sacrificing at alter; A in field; XXI KOY in ex
RIC V.2 Sis 581o
24mm; 4.25g; antoninianus
One of the "coded" series of antoniniani, with the word ΗΡΚΟΥΛΙ in the mintmark: ΗΡ, ΚΟΥ, ΛΙ. This is coin 2 in the series. This is an uncommon bust type, that is supposed to look more "Herculean" with the bare chest and exaggerated muscles, compared to the usual busts where the emperor is wearing armor and/or commander's cloak.
204-467
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 288/289
obv.- A K M A OVA MAΞIMIANOC CEB; laureate draped bust right
rev.- [none]; Alexandria standing left, wearing turreted cap, bust of Serapis in right, long vertical scepter in left ; L | Δ (= Yr 4) across fields
Geißen: 3299 f., Dattari: 5833
18mm; 7.7g; tetradrachm
204-370
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 290/291
obv.- MAΞIMIANOC CEB; laureate draped bust right
rev.- [no legend]; Herakles standing half-left, holding Nike confronted and club downward, star in upper right field, date L — S (=year 6)
Milne 4977. Emmett 4130
19mm; 8.13g; tetradrachm
204-553
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 290-291
obv.- MAΞIMIANOC CEB; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev.- [none]; Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm; in right field, date (L S = Year 6); in left field, star.
Dattari 5960; Emmett 4147
20mm; 8.3g; tetradrachm
204-519
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 294/295
obv.- ΜΑΞΙΜΙΑΝΟC CεΒ; laureate bust right
rev.- [none]; Bust of Serapis right. In field L Ι = year 10
Geissen 3345. Emmett 4163. Dattari 5980 var.
18mm; 7.1g; tetradrachm
204-514
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome, 286
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev.- IOVI CON SE VAT AVGG; Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter
RIC V.ii Rom 535 [var]
20mm; 4.2g; semis
This obverse legend not listed for any mint. Property of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 15 (18 May 1999), lot 464 (listing incorrect legend on coin and in RIC).
204-089
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome (?)
obv.- MAXIMIANVS AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- HERCVLI DEBALLAT; Hercules, stg.l., holding club and lion’s skin, fighting Hydra
RIC – ; King, Roman Quinarii p.424, no. 2
16mm; 1.13g; quinarius

Rare and uncataloged variety, it's not clear where and when this was struck. Note from dealer:

Cathy King notes on p.241 of her book that aurei with this reverse type were struck at the mints of Trier and Siscia, but she can’t decide where the quinarius might have been struck (courtesy to C. Clay for this paraphrasis). But when the choice is between these two mints – the type could be struck at yet another mint where no aurei of this type are known – then the Siscia mint is most probable, if style is taken into account. Extremely rare, third specimen known (the other two: Arethusa 4, Lugano (1996) lot 670, cited by King, and another in a private collection).

My own opinion is Rome mint, based on the pattern of other small issues of fractions and also the portrait style. RIC attributes an issue of small unmarked fractions to 305; alternatively, this could have been struck before the coinage reform, when other quinarii and denarii were struck at Rome in the years before 294.

204-400
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Lugdunum, 294
obv.- MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; radiate and cuirassed bust right
rev.- ABVNDANT AVGG; Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; A in ex
RIC V.ii 346
22mm; 4.1g; antoninianus

I. Coins struck in Britain and Gaul

Coins in this section were struck by Constantius, Maximianus' caesar, who was charged with administering Britain and Gaul.

104-758
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 294
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG; laureate bust left
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; TR in ex
RIC VI Tr 138 [var]
28mm; 9.7g; nummus
First issue from Treveri mint. Unlisted in RIC, but should be expected—for this issue, each emperor has 2 right bust varieties and 1 left bust variety, except that no left bust variety is listed for Maximianus. This is presumably it. Proper catalog would be RIC 138b.
104-939
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 294
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia; A * in fields, TR in ex
RIC VI Tr 142b
27mm; 9.9g; nummus
First issue from Treveri mint
204-645
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 296-297
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG; Laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius, standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, B-Γ in fields; TR in ex
RIC VI Tr 170b
28mm; 9.6g; nummus
204-298
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 296-297
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear over shoulder
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia, modius on head; B in left field, Γ in right field, [TR] in ex
RIC VI Tr 178b
26mm; 7.5g; nummus
Rated R in RIC. Ex White Mountain Collection
204-497
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 297
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left modius on head, holding cornucopiae with chlamys over left shoulder, patera in right from which liquor flows; A Γ in field, TR in ex
RIC VI Tr 187b
27mm; 7.3g; nummus
barbarous copy
204-564
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 298-299
obv.- MAXIMIANVS P AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- VIRTVS MILITVM; The four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before six-turreted camp gate; club in ex
RIC VI Tr 116b [var]
19mm; 3.4g; argenteus
Not listed in RIC for this obverse legend. In fact, this obverse legend is not listed at all for any silver or bronze coin; in all of RIC VI it is only occurs a couple of time on gold coins.
104-729
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 298-299
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- FORTVNAE REDVCI CAESS NN; Fortuna standing left holding cornucopia; wheel behind to left; B in left field, * in right field, TR in exergue
RIC VI Tr 248 [var]; Fail 004
26mm; 10.5g; nummus
Not listed in RIC for either obverse legend, or bust type. Should be included with the series iv types found on p.185 [RIC #246-253, c. AD 298-9]. The officina mark in the left field (tough to see in photo, but you can see it in hand) distinguishes it from the series v [where it still would have been a minor variant [no drapery].
104-849
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Treveri, 303-305
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG; laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
rev.- POPVLI ROMANI; Genius, head towered and loins draped standing right, holding patera and cornucopiae; S-F in fields, PTR in ex
RIC VI Tr 576b
26mm; 8.7g; nummus
104-739
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 295
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in left hand, cornucopiae in right; LA in ex
RIC VI Lug 2b; Fail 006
28mm; 12.6g; nummus
First issue from Lugdunum; rated S in RIC
204-561
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 295-296
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; PLA in ex
RIC VI Lug 11b
mm; 10.5g; nummus
rated R2 in RIC
204-028
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 295-296
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius, stg.l., holding patera in r.hand, cornucopiae in l.
RIC VI Lug 14b
29mm; 10.3g; nummus
204-710
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 298
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, B in field, PL in ex
RIC VI Lug 44a
28mm; 8.8g; nummus
204-125
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 301-303
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG; Laur. bust left; lion's skin on left shoulder, club over right shoulder
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius stg. left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. hldg. patera, l. cornucopia; altar in left field, A in right; PLC in ex
RIC VI Lug 85
27mm; 9.4g; nummus
Rated S in RIC, but probably much more rare than that. Great Hercules detail with great style.
204-009
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 301-303
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius, towered, loins draped, stg left holding cornucopia and patera over alter; B in field; PLC in ex
RIC VI Lug 108b
27mm; 11.1g; nummus
204-521
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 301-303
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG; laureate, cuirassed bust left holding scepter over right shoulder
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius, standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; saltire altar and A in fields, PLC in exergue
RIC VI 115b [var]
27mm; 7.9g; nummus
The saltire altar type is not catalogued in RIC for this issue. It was used on several earlier issues from this mint, but for this issue RIC explicitly notes "plain altar" type.
204-248
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
London, 297
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia; LON in ex
RIC VI Lon 1b
29mm; 8.8g; nummus
First issue from London mint; rated R in RIC
204-390
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Londinium, 300-303
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; laureate, cuirassed bust left, spear over right shoulder, shield on left arm
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
RIC VI Lon 19 [var]
28mm; 11.0g; nummus
The first record of this bust type (left facing bust with spear and shield) isn't until the Class III issue, but this issue is almost certainly part of the Class II.b group : first on stylistic grounds, but also because this longer legend form is not used for any of the tetrarchs in Class III. As such, this is the earliest instance of a left-facing bust from Londinium.
104-878
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
Londinium, 303-305
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur cuir bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia
RIC VI Lon 23b
29mm; 9.9g; nummus
204-245
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Constantius I
London, 300-303
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia
RIC VI Lon 17 [var]
27mm; 8.2g; nummus
Curiously blundered legend — PMVG instead of P F AVG on obverse; illegible GE at beginning of GENIO; doubled I I at end of ROMANI; poor style throughout. In addition, the head of Genius is unrecognizable. Semi-barbaric? Certainly an illiterate celator. The portrait is OK though, so one suspects that a skilled engraver was used for the imperial portrait and a less-skilled engraver did the lettering.

II. Italian and neigboring mints

Coins in this section were struck by Maximianus at mints under his control. These included the mints in Italy plus Carthage and Siscia.

104-741
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome, 294-295
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in left hand, cornucopiae in right; R in field
RIC VI Rom 44a; Fail 006
27mm; 12.86g; nummus
First issue from Rome
204-328
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome, 296-297
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in left hand, cornucopiae in right; R in field, A in ex
RIC VI Rom 63
27mm; 9.5g; nummus
204-007
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome, 295-297
obv.- MAXIMIANVS AVG; laur bust right
rev.- VICTORIA SARMAT; Four princes sacrificing over tripod/altar before gate in six-turreted enclosure; ε in ex
RIC VI Rom 37b
18mm; 3.1g; argenteus
Listed as R3
104-733
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Rome, 296-297
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in left hand, cornucopiae in right; R in field, S in ex
RIC VI Rom 64b; Fail 006
28mm; 10.23g; nummus
104-877
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Aquileia, 296
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia; AQS in ex
RIC VI Aq 23b
27mm; 10.8g; nummus
204-434
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Aquileia, 297-298
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark AQP
RIC VI Aq 25b
27mm; 10.5g; nummus
204-362
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Aquileia, 301
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- SACR MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR; Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia; V in field; AQP in ex
RIC VI Aq 31b
28mm; 10.1g; nummus
From Elliott-Kent Collection
104-920
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Aquileia, 302-303
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- SACR MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR;
RIC VI Aq 35b
28mm; 8.8g; nummus
104-972
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Ticinum, 294
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, pouring libations from patera & holding cornucopiae, T in exergue
RIC Vi Tic 22A
27mm; 8.5g; nummus
First issue from Ticinum mint. Rated R2 in RIC
104-734
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Ticinum, 294-295
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in left hand, cornucopiae in right, T in ex
RIC VI Tic 23b; Fail 006
26mm; 9.5g; nummus
First issue from Ticinum
104-544
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Ticinum, 297
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding cornucopia and patera, S T in ex, * in field
RIC VI Tic 31b; Fail 25
27mm; 10.6g; nummus
This is another nice coin that photographs poorly because it has so much silver plating. The really dark, almost black areas are typical of the way that lots of ancient silver coins are found, but usually it is cleaned off.
104-938
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Ticinum, 300-303
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR; Moneta standing with balance scales and conucopiae; PT• in ex
RIC VI Tic 43b
26mm; 11.4g; nummus
104-736
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Siscia, 302
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR; Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left; *-B/*SIS
RIC VI Sis 136b; Fail 028
28mm; 9.4g; nummus
104-789
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Carthage, 297
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN; Africa standing left holding standard and elephant's tusk, lion at feet; B in field; PKS in ex
RIC VI Car 21b; Fail 001
28mm; 9.5g; nummus
Ex Manfra Tordella and Brookes 1968; rated S in RIC
104-784
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximianus
Carthage, 299-303
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART; Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe, fruits in both hands; B in ex
RIC VI Car 31b; Fail 009
28mm; 9.5g; nummus

III. Coins struck in eastern mints

Coins in this section were struck in the eastern mints by Diocletian and Galerius.

104-862
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Galerius
Thessalonica, 298-299
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust r
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera (from which liquor flows) right and cornucopiae left; in ex, TSA
RIC VI Thes 19b
28mm; 9.3g; nummus
204-708
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Galerius
Serdica, 303-305
obv.- IMP C • MA • MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, Γ in field, •SM•SD• in ex
RIC VI Ser 3b
26mm; 9.9g; nummus
interesting variation with • punctuation in the obverse legend
104-927
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Heraclea, 297-298
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing facing, head left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left HTA in exergue
RIC VI Her 19b
27mm; 11.4g; nummus
Note: RIC gives ‘IMP C M A VAL’ as the obv. legend, incorrectly (cf. plate 12, nr. 14)
204-373
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Galerius
Heraclea, 298-299
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera (from which liquor flows) right and cornucopiae left; in ex, HTA
RIC VI Her 19b
27mm; 10.4g; nummus
204-036
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Nicomedia, 295-296
obv.- MAXIMIANVS AVG; laur bust right
rev.- VICTORIAE SARMATICAE; Four-turreted camp-gate, open, with doors thrown back; SMN-Γ in ex
RIC VI Nic 25b
18mm; 3.2g; argenteus
Listed as R3
204-524
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Nicomedia, 294-295
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing l. pouring liquid from patera and holding cornucopia; SMN in ex
RIC VI Nic 27b
27mm; 10.5g; nummus
204-074
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Maximianus augustus
—barbarous copy
[Balkans], c300
obv.- [MAXIMIA...]; laureate bust right
rev.- VIRTVS MILITVM; Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets
17mm; 2.1g; argenteus
Found in Balkans. Imitating an issue of Rome, possibly — based on the single "letter" in exergue on the reverse.
104-669
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Cyzicus, 295-296
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing facing, head left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left; K-Δ in exergue
RIC VI Cyz 10b; Fail 006
28mm; 8.8g; nummus
204-715
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Cyzicus, 295-296
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia; KE in ex
RIC VI Cyz 10b
30mm; 17.76g; nummus
Outrageously overweightalmost double the normal weight.
104-926
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Galerius
Cyzicus, 297-299
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing facing, head left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left KE in exergue
RIC VI Cyz 12b
29mm; 12g; nummus
204-689
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Cyzicus, 297-299
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing facing, modius on head left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left KЄ in exergue
RIC VI Cyz 12b
26mm; 8.2g; nummus
204-288
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Antioch, 294-295
obv.- MAXIMIANVS AVG; Laureate bust right
rev.- VICTORIAE SARMATICAE; four tetrarchs sacrificing in front of gateway of four-turreted enclosure; * A in fields; ANT in ex
RIC VI Ant 32 [var]
18mm; 3.3g; argenteus

Very rare—possibly only the second known speciman. RIC lists this issue for Diocletian (RIC 32), and Constantius / Galerius (RIC 33a/b), so one should assume that it was also struck for Maximianus; it should be cataloged as 32b. This is a logical companion coin to the previous one, 204-299; together they fill out the first Antioch issue of argentii to properly include Maximianus. Cf. Berk 110, lot 549 (Sept. 15, 1999), same dies.

As noted in 204-299, Sutherland's cataloging in RIC is based on his idea that Antioch used 8 officina, with 4 reseved for argentii and 4 for bronze coins. Like 204-299, this further disproves that notion by being struck in officina A, for which no other argentii are cataloged.

204-444
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Antioch, 299-300
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left holding a patera and cornucopiae. Δ in fields, [ANT] in ex
RIC VI Ant 52b
27mm; 5.7g; half-nummus
This is a full-size nummus from which approximately half the material has been cut away to make small change. Notice how carefully the money-changer avoided cutting into the imperial portrait.
204-705
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Antioch, 300-301
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae, K in left field, officina letter S over V in right field; ANT in ex
RIC VI Ant 54b
28mm; 9.9g; nummus
104-671
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Domitius Domitianus
Alexandria, 295-296
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing facing, head left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left; eagle | Γ infield; ALE in exergue
RIC VI Ale 18b; Fail 007
26mm; 10.4g; nummus
Struck under the control of Domitius Domitianus
104-537
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 300
obv.- IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding cornucopia and patera, ALE in ex, XXI | B in field
RIC VI Ale 30b; Fail 25
28mm; 10.8g; nummus
Scarcer variety with XXI in field — only struck in single issue at Siscia and Alexandria
204-262
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 304-305
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate bust right
rev.- HERCVLI VICTORI; Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on his club and holding apples; a lion's skin hangs from his elbow; SP-gamma in fields; ALE in ex
RIC VI Ale 38; Fail 026
28mm; 9.1g; nummus
204-337
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Diocletian
Alexandria, 304-305
obv.- IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; Laureate bust left
rev.- HERCVLI VICTORI; Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on his club and holding apples; a lion's skin hangs from his elbow; S | Γ-P in fields; ALE in ex
RIC VI Ale 39
27mm; 10g; nummus
rated R3 in RIC. Technically, this type is unlisted for left-facing bust; RIC 39 references bust type B, which is radiate bust right, instead of bust type C, which is this one, but IMO this is simply a typo in RIC. The radiate bust type makes no sense at all for this type (that was used exclusively for the fractions), on the other hand, for all of the other tetrarchs, a left-bust variety like this one is catalogued.

Coins in this section document Maximianus' colorful career following his abdication in 305.

Abdication coinage

Following the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus in 305, happy coins were struck throughout the empire commemorating the event and expressing devotional sentiments.

104-787
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Galerius
Cyzicus, 305
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG; Laureate bust right in imperial mantle (Senatorial Bust), olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia standing right, Quies standing left; S | F in fields, * in center, K-Δ in ex
RIC VI Cyz 28b; Fail 052
28mm; 8.4g; nummus
rated S in RIC
104-982
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Severus II
Rome, 305
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISS SEN AVG; laureate bust right in imperial mantle & holding branch & mappa
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providence standing right, extending hand to Quies, standing left, holding branch; S F in field; RS in ex
RIC VI Rom 119b
28mm; 8.9g; nummus
listed as R2 in RIC. Not recorded for this officina. There is possibly a wreath between the R-S—which perhaps got filled in in the die—
in this case, the coin would be RIC 131b, struck in 306.
204-442
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Severus II
Ticinum, 305
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG; bust of Maximian right in imperial mantle, holding olive branch bearing four olives in right hand and single-roll mappa in left
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; standing right, greeting Quies standing left, holding branch and scepter, pellet in right field, P T in exergue
RIC VI Tic 57b
27mm; 8.0g; nummus
104-933
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Severus II
Ticinum, 305
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO BAEATISSIMO SEN AVG; bust of Maximian right in imperial mantle, holding olive branch bearing four olives in right hand and single-roll mappa in left
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; standing right, greeting Quies standing left, holding branch and scepter, pellet in right field, T T in exergue
RIC VI Tic 56b
28mm; 9.6g; nummus
204-653
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Severus II
Aquileia, 305-306
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG; Laureate head r., in imperial mantle, holding olive-branch and mappa
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia standing r., extending hand to Quies standing l., , holding branch; S F in fields l. and r.; in ex AQS
RIC VI Aq 64b
27mm; 9.8g; nummus
204-010
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantius I
Lugdunum, 305-306
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG; laureate bust right in imperial mantle & holding branch & mappa
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providence standing right, extending hand to Quies, standing left, holding branch; T F in field; PLC in ex
RIC VI Lug 201
28mm; 10.8g; nummus
Rated S in RIC
104-596
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Galerius
Serdica, 305-306
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG; laureate bust right, in imperial mantle, holding mappa
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia standing right extending right hand to Quies standing left who holds branch in right hand and leans on sceptre, SMSD in ex; officina Γ
RIC VI Ser 15b; Fail 52
28mm; 10.1g; nummus
204-033
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantius I
Londinium, 305-307
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AG; laureate bust right, in imperial mantle, holding olive-branch and mappa
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia and Quies standing facing each other, Quies holds branch and sceptre
RIC VI Lon 77b [var]
30mm; 9.5g; nummus
Unpublished obverse legend variant (...SEN AG). ex. Dr. J. S. Vogelaar Collection
104-865
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Galerius
Cyzicus, 305-307
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO BAEATISSIMO SEN AVG; laureate bust right, in imperial mantle, holding olive branch in right hand and mappa in left hand
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia standing right and extending hand to Quies standing left who holds branch up and leans on sceptre; S and F in fields to right and left of figures; between figures K(Δ); PTR in exergue
RIC VI Tr 675
29mm; 10.6g; Cyzicus
Miscatalogued as Treveri, when actually struck in Cyzicus with Treveri mintmarks
104-831
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Maximinus II
Antioch, 306
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO BAEATISSIMO SEN AVG; Laureate and mantled Maximianus right, holding olive branch in right hand and mappa in left
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG; Providentia standing right and extending hand to Quies standing left; H in field; ANT: in ex
RIC VI Ant 76b; Fail 052
28mm; 10.9g; nummus
rated R in RIC
204-695
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Maximinus II
Alexandria, 308
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIM; laureate draped cuirassed bust right
rev.- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM; Providentia standing right, greeting Quies standing left, holding branch and scepter; B in field; ALE in ex
RIC VI Ale 87b
21mm; 2.9g; half-nummus

Coins from his second "reign" as Augustus

In 307, Maximianus assumed the title of Augustus again in support of his son Maxentius' revolt. Constantine agreed to recognize Maximianus' new claims to power as part of a complex alliance with Maxentius. Constantine and Maxentius struck coins in Maximianus' name throughout their respective territories.

104-748
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Londinium, 307
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG; Laureate and cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius standing left (modius on head), holding patera and cornucopiae; PLN
RIC VI Lon 85; Fail 198
24mm; 6.8g; nummus
From the Marc Poncin Collection. Listed as S in RIC.
204-637
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Londinium, 307
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- HERCVLI CONSERVATORI; Hercules standing facing, head left, right hand leaning on club, left holding bow; lion's skin over shoulder; PLN in ex
RIC VI Lon 91
26mm; 5.9g; nummus
204-294
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Lugdunum, 307
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG; laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, left shoulder and loins draped, holding patera and cornucopia, N in field, PLC in exergue
RIC VI Lug 207
26mm; 7.9g; nummus
This is the first issue that recognizes Maximianus as an active augustus following his post-abdication bid to reclaim power. Even though the legend uses the Senior Augustus title (with the D N "Dominum Nostrorum" honorific instead of IMP "Imperator"), the reverse is the traditional Genius type instead of the retirement motif. From this issue and going forward at Lugdunum, the traditional retirement reverse types were struck in the name of Diocletian only. Rated S in RIC.
104-934
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Lugdunum, 307
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG; laureate, cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius standing left, wearing turreted crown, left shoulder and loins draped, holding patera and cornucopia, S—C in fields, PLC in exergue
RIC VI Lug 224 [var]
25mm; 6.9g; nummus

RIC records version with Genius wearing modius; this is quite clearly a turret. No turreted Genius types are officially recorded in the vicinity of this one, but one is described in a footnote of the previous issue, struck for Constantine. Listed as R for the normal 224.

This is part of an interesting issue struck at Lugdunum when Maximianus was left in control of the city by Constantine after emerging from retirement. It follows up the previous issue represented above by RIC 207, struck when Constantine was resident.

The typical coins with the "abdication" motifthat were typically struck for both augustihad two figures on the reverse, representing Providentia and Quiess, and the former emperor in consular robes on the obverse—emphasizing civilian, not military authority. For this issue, Maximianus struck a retirement nummus in Diocletian's name only, with only a single figure on the reverse. For himself, he struck coins in the style of the other active emperors: "Genio Populi Romani" on the reverse, and the armored bust of an active military leader on the obverse. To reinforce the claim to legitimacy, he added the classic S-C ("Senatus Consultus") on the reverse to give the impression of Senatorial sanction and echoing the motto typically found on Roman coins from the great days of the empire.

104-553
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Maxentius
Rome, 307
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laur b r
rev.- CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE; Roma std facing, head l, in hexastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre; knobs as acroteria; plain pediment
RIC VI Rom 194b; Fail 127d
24.5mm; 6.4g; nummus
204-694
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Treveri, 307
obv.- D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG; laureate draped cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius, towered, standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; S C in fields; PTR in ex
RIC VI Tr 705
25mm; 5.4g; nummus
104-578
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Treveri, 307
obv.- DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; PTR in ex, S|A in fields
RIC VI Tr 721; Fail 72
28mm; 7.4g; nummus
actually struck just before he assumed title of Augustus for second time, so still kind of retired. Interestingly the only augustus for which coins were struck in this issue (summer 307) was Galerius.
204-391
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Treveri, 307
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; S A in fields; PTR in ex
RIC VI Tr 738
21mm; 4.4g; half-nummus
listed as rarity R2 in RIC
204-321
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Treveri, 307-308
obv.- IMP C M AVREL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate and cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; S-A in fields; PTR in ex
RIC VI Tr 766
28mm; 7.8g; nummus
Interesting very long obverse legend form (neatly and meticulously engraved). Contrast with 104-578, struck a year or so earlier, that has the honorific titles of the senior augustus; perhaps this extra-long form is meant to emphasize his restored "active" status. ex Elliot-Kent Collection
204-167
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Maximianus senior augustus
—struck by Maxentius
Aquileia, 307
obv.- IMP C MAXIMINIANVS P F AVG; Laureate bust right
rev.- CONSERV VRB SVAE; Roma seated front, head left, holding globe and scepter, shield behind throne, in six-columned temple with wreath in pediment; AQP in exergue
RIC VI Aq 118
28mm; 6.8g; nummus
Ex Jacob Stein Collection. Displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum, 1994-2008, no. 178. Detailed, well-struck reverse from dies of fine style.
104-857
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Maxentius
Aquileia, 307-308
obv.- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate head right
rev.- CONSERV VRB SVAE; Roma seated within hexastyle temple; star in pedimentAQP in exergue
RIC VI Aq 121c
25mm; 6.1g; nummus
rated S in RIC
204-562
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Lugdunum, 307-308
obv.- IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- CONCORDIA FELIX DD NN; Constantine and Maxentius standing facing each other, clasping right hands, left holding scepter; PLC in ex
RIC VI Lug 246
mm; 5.7g; nummus
Rated R3 in RIC
104-765
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Lugdunum, 307-308
obv.- IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate and cuirassed bust right
rev.- MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI; Mars, naked, advancing right, holding spear in right hand, shield in left, cloak flying behind, PLC in ex
RIC VI Lug 260 [var]; Fail 083; Bastien XI 480
28mm; 6.5g; nummus
This reverse type is only used by Constantine himself, except for a single rare issue for Maximinus II. That said, the existence of the Maximinus issue would imply a corresponding issue for Maximianus in the same series, which would be this coin.
104-970
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Constantine I
Lugdunum, 308-309
obv.- IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate, cuirassed bust right, parallel laurel ties
rev.- GENIO POP ROM; Genius standing facing, head left, modius on head, loins draped, patera in right hand over lighted altar, cornucopiae in left ; C-I | H / S across fields ; PLC in exergue
RIC VI Lug 288
26mm; 6.3g; nummus
204-504
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Maximianus sr aug
—struck by Maxentius
Carthage, 307
obv.- IMP MAXIMIANVS SEN AVG; laureate bust right
rev.- CONSERVATORES KART SVAE; Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands, within hexastyle temple; PKA in ex
RIC VI Car 59
24mm; 6.9g; nummus

Maximianus' second retirement

At the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Galerius and Diocletian stripped Maximianus of his restored title of augustus. The following coin is the only coin that commemorates the second retirement of Maximianus. It was the last coin that Constantine struck for Maximianus.

204-433
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Constantine I
Treveri, 308
obv.- MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate cuirassed bust right
rev.- QVIES AVG; Quies standing facing, head left, right hand holding branch, left leaning on scepter; S A in fields, PTR in ex
RIC VI Tr 788
26mm; 6.9g; nummus
This was the last official coin to be struck for Maximianus. One of the edicts of the Conference of Carnuntum was that Maximianus step down again from active rule. While Constantine ignored the Conference's decisions about his own position, he apparently welcomed this opportunity to rid himself of Maximianus' role in his affairs, since he immediately struck this coin in Maximianus' name to announce his latest retirement.

Maximianus' THIRD period as augustus?

Sometime in late 309, while Constantine was engaged fighting Franks along the Rhine frontier, a frustrated Maximianus revolted against Constantine and again proclaimed himself emperor. It is possible that this coin, struck at Antioch about this same time by Maximinus II, was intended to irritate Constantine by recognizing Maximianus. (A similar coin was struck about the same time in Alexandria.) Even though the revolt lasted no longer than—at most—a couple of months, Maximianus was holed up in the seaport of Massilia (modern-day Marseilles), so word of the revolt presumably spread quickly by sea. Perhaps Maximianus even dispatched a request for assistance or alliance directly to Maximinus II?

204-309
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Maximianus augustus
—struck by Maximinus II
Antioch, 309
obv.- IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev.- GENIO IMPERATORIS; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; OЄ in field; ANT• in ex
RIC VI Ant 112c
25mm; 6.3g; nummus
The existence of this coin is a puzzling anachronism. Struck long after the revolt of Maxentius, it nevertheless recognizes Maximianus as Augustus. One wonders why any eastern mint struck such coins in the first place, considering Maximianus' efforts to reclam power were a direct affront to Galerius, but what makes this coin even more puzzling is that the issue of which it is part was struck after the Carnuntum conference that formally stripped Maximianus of his title. The fact that coins from Constantine in this issue have the title of filius augustorum confirms that this issue is consistent with the Carnuntum edicts, so one wonders why any coins at all were struck for Maximianus.
The most intriguing possibility is that this coin was struck to support Maximianus' later revolt against Constantine, there being no love lost between Maximinus II and Constantine: this then would be the only coin that recognizes Maximianus' third bid as augustus. The fact that Maximimianus' first name is is present in the legendM AVRmakes it obvious that whoever struck this coin took pains to make sure that it was understood that this coin referred to Maximianus and not Galerius.

Posthumous coinage

Constantine's alliance with Maxentius broke down in 309—as did Maximianus' relationship with his son Maxentius—leading to Maximianus' death in 310. Maxentius struck commemorative posthumous coinage honoring his father before his own defeat. Later, Constantine himself struck coins honoring Maximianus, as part of an effort to advertise his own imperial ancestry.

204-435
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Maxentius
Ostia, 311
obv.- IMP MAXENTIUS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI; Veiled head of Maximianus right
rev.- AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Eagle standing right on top of domed hexastyle temple with door ajar; MOSTP in ex
RIC VI Ost 26
26mm; 6.2g; nummus
Rated R in RIC
204-709
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Maxentius
Rome, 310-311
obv.- IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI; veiled bust right
rev.- AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Eagle with spread wings atop hexastyle temple with door ajar; RES in ex
RIC VI Rom 251
24mm; 6.7g; nummus
Plate coin from Tory Failmezger's book, "Roman Bronze Coins, From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 AD"
204-095
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Constantine I
Rome, 317-318
obv.- DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP; Maximianus, laureate and veiled bust right
rev.- REQVIES OPTIM-ORVM MERITORVM; Emperor sitting on curule chair holding sceptre
RIC VII Rom 104; Fail 332
21mm; 3.0 g; nummus
much larger flan than expected for this issue; should be about 18mm. See http://www.oudgeld.com/webbib/conscomm.htm for more info about this coin (article by Gert Boersema, originally from Celator).
204-682
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Constantine I
Rome, 317-318
obv.- DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP; veiled bust right
rev.- MEMORIAE AETERNAE; lion walking right; club above; RQ in ex
RIC VII Rom 120
17mm; 2.1g; half-nummus
204-549
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Constantine I
Thessalonica, 317-318
obv.- DIVO MAXIMIANO OPTIMO IMP; Laureate and veiled bust right
rev.- REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM; Maximianus, veiled, seated left on curule chair, holding scepter; •TS•E• in ex
RIC VII Thes 24
15mm; 1.45g; half-nummus
204-596
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Maximianus commem
—struck by Constantine I
Siscia, 317-318
obv.- DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP; Maximianus, laureate and veiled bust right
rev.- REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM; Emperor sitting on curule chair holding sceptre; SIS in ex
RIC VII Sis 41
16mm; 1.7g; half-nummus

Maximianus' original full name is not known. He was born about 250 in Illyricum, near Sirmium, from a family of peasants. Violent and poorly educated, he has a somewhat brutish reputation, but nevertheless impressed Diocletian with his valor during their shared military service during the reigns of Aurelian, Probus, and Carus. He was no doubt serving alongside Diocletian in Asia in 283 when Diocletian made his own bid for power.

In July 285 Diocletian elevated Maximianus to the title of caesar, charging him with dealing with the campaign in Gaul against the Bagaudae, a Celtic tribe that was revolting. Diocletian was occupied with campaigns against Persia at the time and recognized the need to delegate control to a local imperial presence. Diocletian gave him authority over the western half of the empire, and Maximianus established his capital at Mediolanum in northern Italy.

Diocletian created a fanciful religious basis for the divided administration, linking his own administration with Jupiter and that of Maximianus with Hercules. This was perhaps to evoke the support that the mythical Hercules supplied to Jupiter in Jupiter's battle against the giants. Nevertheless, Maximianus assumed the title of Herculius. The figure of Hercules became a regular feature of his coinage and Maximianus was associated with this title throughout his career.

Maximianus successfully campaigned against the German tribes and defended the Rhine frontier, but suffered a major setback when Carausius, the commander of his fleet in the Rhine and North Sea, revolted and proclaimed himself emperor in 286. Maximianus himself was awarded the title of augustus on April 1, 286, perhaps to bolster his efforts to dislodge Carausius. However, Carausius established firm control over the northern Gaul and Britain, and decisively defeated Maximianus in 289 when Maximianus launched a naval expedition against him.

In 291 Diocletian and Maximianus met in Mediolanum at a major summit. Not only was it a major event to have both Augusti in the same location, but a delegation of senators from Rome came to meet with the emperors. It is likely that one of the goals of the summit was to bolster Maximianus after the embarassing defeat to Carausius, and it is possible that it was at this meeting that the plans to appoint two additional caesars and create the Tetrarchy were hatched.

In 293, Flavius Constantius was appointed to serve under Maximianus as caesar; shortly thereafter, Galerius was similarly appointed to serve as caesar under Diocletian. Constantius was already serving as praetorian prefect to Maximianus and was married to Maximianus' daughter. Constantius was charged with prosecuting the war against Carausius, which he did with considerably more success than Maximianus, eventually re-conquering Britain completely by 297.

In the meantime, Maximianus turned his attention south, to problems in northern Africa where Berber tribes were causing increasing amounts of trouble. In late 296 he led an army through Spain and Gibralter across to Africa, and launched a series of campaigns against the Berber tribes known as the Quinquegentiani. In connection with these campaigns the mint at Carthage was opened.

In 298 the African campaigns were successfully concluded, and after a period in Carthage, Maximianus returned to Rome. He seems to have spent the next several years in relative leisure, leaving the active military campaigning to Constantius.

The next major event of his reign was Diocletian's vicennalia, or 20-year anniversary, in 303. In connection with this, Diocletian was to visit Rome, and the two men would celebrate a joint triumph of their victories. Unbelievably, this was the first time that Diocletian actually visited Rome. However, the visit and triumph did not go well; Diocletian took ill; and it is likely that his abdication plans were finalized at this time. Unfortunately for Maximianus, Diocletian's plan was for Maximianus to abdicate at the same time, and Diocletian forced the plan on an unwilling Maximianus. On May 1, 305, Maximianus officially abdicated at a ceremony in Mediolanum; at the same time, Diocletian abdicated in his capital of Nicomedia.

Maximianus didn't stay retired for long. At the time of his abdication, Maximianus' son Maxentius was 27, and it is not clear to what extent Maximianus may have expected that Maxentius would be appointed caesar to replace him, perhaps as a condition of Maximianus' agreeing to resign in the first place. Nevertheless, when Constantius died in 306 and his son Constantine was appointed to succeed him, Maxentius revolted in Rome. Maximianus himself quickly came out of retirement and re-assumed his former title. When Severus II—now Augustus in the west—moved his forces into Italy to put down Maxentius, his troops rallied to Maximianus, their former commander, and Severus II was forced to concede defeat.

Maximianus quickly engineered an alliance with Constantine in 307, who was now firmly in command of his late father's armies in Britain and Gaul. Constantine would marry Maximianus' youngest daughter, Fausta, and recognize Maximianus and Maxentius. In turn, Maximianus would promote Constantine to Augustus, and would be recognized by Maxentius.

Events took a turn for the worse for Maximianus in 308, however. He had a falling out with his son in Rome, and took refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In November 308, he was formally stripped of his power by Diocletian and Galerius at a conference in Carnuntum, and earned the displeasure of Constantine by not securing his recognition as augustus from the other emperors. Maximianus proclaimed himself augustus for a third time in Gaul, this time in a revolt against Constantine. However, Constantine crushed his rebellion and forced Maximianus to commit suicide in 310.

Timeline

250—Born (July 21?) in Illyricum, near Sirmium.

275-ish—Marries Eutropia.

278—Son Maxentius is born.

Oct. 285—Appointed Caesar by Diocletian.

286—Successful campaign against Bagaudae in Gaul. Carausius revolts in Gaul and Britain. Maximianus promoted to Augustus.

287—Serves as Consul (with Diocletian).

288—Consul II (with P. Januarius).

289—Badly defeated by Carausius in naval battle.

290—Consul III (with Diocletian).

290/291—Meets with Diocletian in Mediolanum.

292—Campaigns against Alemanni in Germany.

293—Consul IV (with Diocletian). Constantius is appointed caesar, in charge of Gaul. Carausius usurped by Allectus.

296/297—Revolt in Africa; begins campaign against Berber tribes. Mint at Carthage opens, in support of new war.

297—Consul V (with Galerius).

298—Successful conclusion of African campaigns.

299—Consul VI (with Diocletian). Returns to Rome; begins constructing Baths of Diocletian.

303—Consul VII (with Diocletian). Diocletian visits Rome for triumph and 20-year anniversary celebration.

304—Consul VIII (with Diocletian).

May 1, 305—Abdicates along with Diocletian.

306—Maxentius occupies Rome, supported by Maximianus.

307—Defeats Severus II in Italy and concludes alliance with Constantine. Consul IX (with Constantine).

308—Breaks with Maxentius; moves to Gaul under Constantine's protection.

Nov. 308—Forced to resign again at Carnuntum by Diocletian and Galerius.

310—Revolts against Constantine; defeated, captured and forced to commit suicide.